Monday, August 5, 2019
Impacts Of Tourism In Okavango Delta Tourism Essay
Impacts Of Tourism In Okavango Delta Tourism Essay According to Kreag G. (2001) the impacts of tourism are distinguished in seven different types, these are economic, service, social and cultural, natural, community attitude, crowding and congestion and taxes. These impacts are not applicable with every community because the resources and conditions are may differ. Every coin has two sides, means these impacts can affect negatively or positively. Planning and the plans of management with their current implementation helps to increase positive tourism issues and decreases tourism issues (Algansadi, 2009). In economic term, tourism helps to maximize the opportunities of employment like more number of jobs starting from entry level caries low wedges to high professional level positions in management and industrial fields. In service term, increase in tourism helps to create more number of opportunities to rise and develop facilities. According to Andriotis K. (2009) in terms of community attitude, as tourism increases range of facilitie s are used by the local people. Tourism helps to create place more thrilling and exciting. As new development is done by outsiders, community culture is get affected. In terms of crowding and congestion, people come together and get attracted to amazing places. In terms of taxes, tourist spends more money on behalf of services from which value added tax is gained. According to Fennell (2008) in terms of social and cultural, it is in detail consideration of tourism consequence which can be the determinants or assets to the communities. Increase in number of tourist comes with their different values and affects the family life and individual behaviour. The close relation between tourist and the residents helps to create rise in opportunities. Positive impacts of social and cultural are, the education and training plays important role for local people to learn and enhance their qualification and skills which is significant in tourism industry also help trained staff in the organisations. It helps to increase the standard life of the local people with positive economic growth. Increase in tourist spending power help to increase income of local person (Chin C.,2010). It helps to raise investment with the buying process of food, dress, culture and ceremonies etc, which can create tourist interest in the local culture. Negative impacts of social and cultural affects, increase in smuggling, gambling, drinking of alcohol also with the increase in underage drinking, rise in prostitution, drugs and crime. It affects lifestyle, culture, and most important language. Increase in the tourism area affects local residents. There is a negative impact on customs and values of local people (Kreag G., 2001). In terms of natural, the areas of natural resources like oceans, waterfall, wildlife forests increases tourist attraction and new residents who loves the natural environment. Generally clean industry is known as tourism industry, hotels, parks, restaurants, shops are comes under that except factories. The historical and museums get preserved (Kreag G., 2001). Positive impacts as it work as a catalyst to preserve natural area also helps to gain economic benefits. Forests are preserved. The ecotourism is maintained which protects and preserve selected natural environment, also gain economic benefits of tourism development and reduces the impact on environment (Andereck K. L., 1993). Natural system also have negative effects like, it strongly affects on air and water pollution also sedimentation effects with demonising the forests for the tourist services (Kreag G., 2001). Flora and fauna has deep researched on wild life which includes mammals and birds arises the hunting and trapping a ctivities increases also the marine life is get affected when toxic waste water runoff in sea. The soil and beaches are get damaged with the skies, cars, feet, horse etc. Oil refining situated in coastal areas with the water pollution and destruction. Solid waste major effects on soil and air pollution recycle and reusable helps to minimize the pollution (Mukherjee and Abir, 2008). Okavango Delta is the amazing tourist place situated in north-western part of Botswana. Its a home of wildlife where most of the tourist comes for photography and safari hunter. Annually, on average 50,000 tourists visit this place (Mbaiwa J., 2002). Tourism development has boost to create and enhance facilities like hotels, camps, airports, communication services, etc in region. This development has impacts on environment and socio culture of region (Mbaiwa J., 2004). In positive aspect, the region major land is used for tourism development with helping local people to increase benefits from developing of natural resources and wildlife. Local people created an institution known as Community based Organisation (CBOs) which help for tourism development and natural resource management. Institute distribute work in small parts, like Khawai Community works on cutting of thatching grass and see it to the lodges in Delta, similarly others also choose their parts. This helps to empowermen t of local community in region. 2) Tourism development widely creates employment which benefits for the financial development. Opportunities in jobs like accommodation services, tourism business, management, tour operators, etc. The company like Scot Wilson Consultants gave jobs to people in 20 safari campuses (Mbaiwa J., 2002).As all the local communities has only create jobs and opportunities instead of depending on other companies. 3) Cultural rejuvenations promote tourism with their traditionally created products, services, shops, craft industries, etc which provides cultural services to the tourist to know cultural ways. The Mekoro Safaris and basket production are the major known businesses over there. The safaris are created like the dug in a wood, which use for transport and for hunting crocodiles and hippos. The basket production is their traditional business, which helps to generate more profit from the tourists as market comes to their home. 4) Positive approach among th e local people, for development of tourism and conservation of wildlife helps to develop tourism and social economic benefits from tourist arrivals (Mbaiwa J., 2004). According to Mbaiwa (2002) as negative aspect, tourism industry developed in Okavango Delta is largely owned and managed by internationals and developed in remote areas. The financial rates are so high that all services and goods beyond the local community richness. Major profit in earned by international companies and the margined income of the local people is low. The facilities are provided with which the tourist is comfortable. Most of the camps are run by Hospitality and Tourism Association with the international membership. 2) Racism development in tourism industry of Okavango Delta refers to relationship between black and white people. Management levels are occupied by whites, pay scale and benefits are very low for blacks (Fennell A., 2008). 3) Relations and structure of family is affecting by tourism. Foreign companies growing lodges and camps, less space to live local people accept wildness part. Relocate people affects their landmarks and relations. Working period of worke rs affects relationship with family and this impact on increases in HIV/ADIS spread. 3) Tourism and urbanisation put wide negative impact on social culture. The costumes and styles affect relationships. Prostitution is growing in most of the developing countries as urbanisation develops most impacts on local people. Tourism is the major economic sector, which increases in crime with illegal activities like drugs, violence and robberies (Mbaiwa, 2002, 2004). Thus, looking back at the easy, tourism is growing rapidly dealing with positive and negative impacts on the tourist place. Increasing infrastructure put impacts on natural system. Its positive image is excellent for people but the negative image affects culture. Mainly socio cultural positive impact helps to development of tourist destination. Tourism helps to maintain nature and its components. Also it helps to create place attractive and thrilling. Development of tourism increases job opportunities. Positive impact of social culture help local people to educate with training, improves life standards and maintain their culture. Negative side effects mostly on diverse economic and culture, rise in crime, place issues, illegal behaviour. Tourism is developing in Okavango Delta with combining positive and negative social cultural impacts on local people. Its positive impacts helps to develop destination mainly community based tourism. Participating local people helps to generate income and employment by self. Mekoro Safaries and Basket making helps to preserve their own culture. Tourism help local people to get international market at their place. Its negative social impacts affect on quality life of local people. Its important to focus on these impacts by all stakeholders of industry. The camps should be promoted but should not owned by international. The local people should get first preference in management jobs and there should be law to prevent racism.